In case you are keen on studying achieve weight the fitting approach, you’ve come to the fitting place!
My identify is Staci Ardison.
I overcame an consuming dysfunction, found a love for heavy energy coaching, and now I assist ladies such as you get stronger for a dwelling.
Imagine it or not, I’m 50 kilos heavier within the photograph on the fitting (and WAY stronger, and more healthy, and happier!).
I’m at the moment a lead coach right here within the Nerd Health Teaching Program, the place we prepare ladies to select up heavy weights, get robust, and construct confidence.
Talking of choosing up heavy weights, right here I’m deadlifting 455 kilos:
That is what I LOVE to do.
On this Final Information to Constructing Muscle as a Lady, I’m going to be protecting:
Alright, let’s do that.
Why Constructing Muscle is Tough for Some Girls
As Steve lined in “How one can construct muscle” and “How one can bulk up for males,” the ideas of weight achieve are all the identical no matter your intercourse or gender:
“If you wish to achieve weight, eat extra energy than you burn usually. Need to placed on the fitting KIND of weight? Train and eat the fitting approach too.”
Now, there’s loads of nuance to this when evaluating women and men:
- As a consequence of our pure hormones, it’s typically harder for folks with typical feminine anatomy to realize muscle than folks with typical male anatomy.
- We now have numerous components (equivalent to hormonal contraception) which were confirmed to make it even more durable as nicely.
However that doesn’t imply it’s inconceivable!
It simply means we’ve got to work more durable for it.
Ugh, I do know.
Now, one factor I wish to contact on fast: in case you see a lady who is completely jacked and at an especially low physique fats proportion, I assure she has been working her butt off for a really very long time with the purpose of constructing muscle.
It’s not one thing that occurs in a single day, or by mistake.
As well as, some ladies with bigger quantities of muscle mass select to take steroids to assist help them in gaining muscle, as a result of we merely don’t have the hormones naturally to get to that measurement.
So in case you’d prefer to construct muscle, however not as a lot as an expert bodybuilder – don’t fear, it’s not one thing that occurs accidentally.
With that out of the best way, let’s speak about physique fats and physique varieties:
As we level out in that physique fats proportion information, we girls can look very totally different at any weight relying on our physique form and the way a lot muscle we’ve got. It comes right down to our personal private targets!
This information goes to primarily give attention to two issues:
- How one can eat to realize weight and construct muscle.
- How one can energy prepare to construct muscle.
We’ve helped hundreds of girls with our on-line teaching program, lots of whom are attempting to realize weight and energy prepare for the primary time of their lives.
Everyone is on their very own journey, at their very own tempo, and all people will find yourself with totally different outcomes too!
Ought to Girls Construct Muscle? (7 Causes Girls Ought to Develop Muscle)
If it may be more durable for ladies to realize muscle (in comparison with males), why undergo the difficulty?
I’m glad you requested!
Listed below are the highest 7 the explanation why ladies ought to energy prepare:
#1) Once you’re stronger – on a regular basis life is less complicated. No must name for assist to get that 50lb bag of pet food off the highest shelf, or carrying an air conditioner unit up a flight of stairs. LIFE is less complicated whenever you’re stronger.
#2) Much less damage danger – whenever you construct robust muscle groups, you’re additionally constructing stronger bones, ligaments, and tendons, making you much less vulnerable to damage doing belongings you love (like enjoying in a quidditch league).
#3) Helps fight age-related muscle loss, permitting us to stay impartial longer as we age:
#4) Muscle is more durable to keep up, which implies it is advisable eat extra simply to carry on to it.
#5) Cut back ache – having a powerful physique makes dwelling simpler in your joints, in addition to permits you to maintain a greater posture, and cut back again / hip ache.
#6) Look – this can be a private choice! Some ladies prefer to have numerous muscle, and a few don’t. When you can’t spot cut back fats, you possibly can select to construct extra muscle in particular areas, altering your physique form. Rising up, I used to be an excessive pear form, however resulting from energy coaching, I now have extra of an hourglass form.
#7) Reside longer – wish to spend extra time on Earth? Power coaching and rising muscle will enable you to just do that.
How one can Eat to Acquire Muscle as a Lady
As we stated above, gaining weight comes right down to thermodynamics and science.
Each day, we burn a sure variety of energy simply present, which known as our BMR (basal metabolic fee). We then consider our each day exercise degree, and get a quantity that known as our “complete each day vitality expenditure.” You’ll be able to calculate yours beneath.
The Nerd Health Calorie Calculator:
(Click on right here for our Metric calculator).
(Word: we’ve got used The Mifflin-St Jeor Equation to create this calculator! ).
Since we wish to achieve weight, we wish to take our TDEE and add 250 energy to it to get our each day purpose. This could lead to gaining about half a pound per week.
Now, though consuming ANY EXTRA energy from any supply will lead to weight achieve, our purpose is to realize the RIGHT form of weight, in a wholesome approach.
And thus, we’ll be focusing our efforts on a “wholesome muscle constructing” technique.
We may simply add extra energy every day, and achieve weight faster, nevertheless, the gradual methodology provides you one of the best possibilities at gaining largely muscle, with minimal fats. The quicker you attempt to achieve weight, the upper the share that may possible be fats – so beginning off at half a pound per week is a good place to begin!
Along with the variety of energy we’ll be including, we additionally wish to take note of the kind of meals we’re consuming.
As we cowl in our “Wholesome Consuming Information,” we’re going to construct muscle by consuming the three large macros within the appropriate portions:
- Protein: rebuilds muscle after you break it down.
- Carbohydrates: offers your muscle with gasoline and physique with vitality.
- Fats: helps your bodily features and will also be burned as gasoline within the absence of carbs.
Let’s have a look at every of those individually:
PRIORITY #1: PROTEIN
Protein can come from any variety of sources, together with:
- Meat (steak, bison, pork).
- Fowl (rooster, turkey, duck).
- Cheese and dairy.
- Fish and shellfish (salmon, tuna, shrimp).
- Legumes (black beans, chickpeas).
- Different vegetarian protein sources right here.
As we cowl in our “How a lot Protein do I would like?”, claims for the quantity of protein required for muscle progress differ wildly from supply to supply (and athlete to athlete).
Right here is our advice:
- In the event you’re of wholesome weight, lively, and want to construct muscle, purpose for 1 g per pound of physique weight (2.2 g/kg).
- In the event you’re an skilled lifter on a bulk, intakes as much as 1.50 g/lb (3.3 g/kg) could enable you to reduce fats achieve.
Let me simplify it for you:
“To construct muscle, goal at the very least 1 gram of protein per pound of physique weight (2.2 grams per kg).”
In the event you’re curious, from our wholesome consuming article, that is what a portion of protein seems like:
Right here’s how a lot protein is in a serving of meals:
- 4 oz (113 g) of rooster has round 30 g of protein.
- 4 oz (113 g) of salmon has 23 g of protein
- 4 oz (113 g) of steak has 28 g of protein.
Need to get extra protein? Think about protein shakes.
PRIORITY #2: CARBS
After protein, we’ll be filling up our plate with energy from carbs (and fat).
Listed below are meals stuffed with carbohydrates you possibly can prioritize:
- Legumes and lentils
- Candy potatoes
- Common potatoes
- Entire grain pasta
- Entire grain bread
That will help you get higher at serving sizes:
1 serving of a starchy carbohydrate is 1 cupped hand (raw), or your two arms forming a cup (cooked).
Listed below are some pictures that can assist you study correct portion sizes (because of SafeFood):
Along with consuming carbohydrates from these sources, it’s okay to devour loads of fruit whereas attempting to construct muscle!
For reference, right here is roughly 200 energy value of an apple (because of WiseGEEK):
You’ll be able to learn our full “Is fruit wholesome?” information to study extra.
PRIORITY #3: FAT!
Fats is a macronutrient that may enable you to attain your calorie targets (in the fitting amount), as fats may be excessive in energy. Plus, you possibly can eat a number of it with out feeling full. Useful in case you’re attempting to placed on weight.
Wholesome fats may be present in meals like:
- Macadamia nuts
- Olive oil
- Almond butter
- Peanut butter
Science has not too long ago come round on saturated fats too. As soon as utterly vilified, however now thought of okay for reasonable consumption.
Saturated fat can come from issues like:
- Entire milk
- Full fats dairy
- Coconut oil
- Grass-fed butter
- Fatty cuts of meat
That will help you gauge: a serving measurement of fats is roughly the scale of your thumb!
For reference, this can be a single serving of almonds (162 energy):
THIS is a serving of olive oil (119 energy):
As you possibly can see, you possibly can eat an additional 500 energy of “wholesome fat” by consuming a number of “heart-healthy” fat like nuts or including extra olive oil to your meals.
PRIORITY #4: VEGETABLES!
Final however not least, you want greens in your weight-reduction plan.
As you begin to eat extra meals, your abdomen, intestines, and different bodily features will thanks for consuming extra high-fiber greens!
A serving of veggies is concerning the measurement of your fist.
Right here’s a fast, non-complete checklist of high-fiber veggies that may fill your plate:
- Spaghetti squash
- Brussels sprouts
BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER: A HEALTHY MUSCLE-BUILDING PLATE
This plate and serving measurement stuff above is simply that can assist you get began fascinated by wholesome meals in another way and in correct portion sizes.
TO RECAP, HERE’S HOW TO EAT TO BUILD MUSCLE:
- Calculate your TDEE (Complete Every day Vitality Expenditure) and add 250 energy over your quantity.
- Eat 1-1.5g per pound (2.2-3.3g per kg) of physique weight in protein every single day.
- Eat the remainder of your energy from meals composed of carbs and fat.
- All the time eat greens in order that your physique can really PROCESS all this further meals. I prefer to purpose for half of my plate of greens.
- In case you are not gaining weight, (and also you’re hitting your protein targets), add extra carbs and/or fat to your meal.
It actually does come right down to the next:
In case you are not gaining weight quick sufficient, you’re not consuming sufficient. Improve your parts of carbs and fat!
Every time we work with teaching shoppers who wrestle to construct muscle, that is the world we goal: including extra carbs and fat to every meal.
8 Power Coaching Workouts For Girls to Construct Muscle
Years from now, you’ll look again and thank “Previous You” for beginning energy coaching at present.
And don’t fear, I’m going to inform you precisely what to take action you can begin energy coaching TODAY!
Right here’s why energy coaching is so essential: whenever you eat a caloric surplus (extra energy than your physique wants every day), the additional energy must go someplace.
- In the event you don’t do any train, your physique will select to retailer the additional energy as fats for later.
- Nevertheless, whenever you energy prepare, your muscle groups are damaged down. Then they’ll use the additional energy to rebuild themselves larger and stronger over the following 48 hours!
“Staci that sounds nice, however I’ve by no means energy educated earlier than, and I don’t know what I’m doing…Halp!” You is perhaps saying into your pc or telephone.
Concern not! I’ll assist. Power coaching doesn’t have to be scary or overly difficult.
Merely put, “energy coaching” means two issues:
#1) “Motion of any weight towards “resistance” (together with your physique weight) – Doing ANY train that pushes your muscle groups exterior of their consolation zone, forcing them to rebuild stronger to organize for the following problem.
#2) Progressive overload: doing barely greater than final time (raise a heavier weight or do 1 extra rep) constantly. Your muscle groups should always adapt and rebuild themselves stronger. That is known as “progressive overload.”
Coach Jim breaks down totally different methods for progressive overload on this video:
This implies in case you drop down and do ONE push-up or knee push-up proper now…
Technically, you’ve energy educated.
Now try this after which do a body weight squat…
Increase, you simply did a energy coaching exercise.
Right here’s what it is advisable learn about energy coaching:
- Power coaching is among the BEST issues you are able to do for your self.
- Power coaching will enable you to placed on muscle whereas consuming in a surplus.
- When you can’t spot cut back fats, you possibly can give attention to constructing extra muscle in particular areas, which may also help you attain a particular look you’re going for.
- In the event you don’t just like the gymnasium, you don’t must go, ever. However I hope you do. As a result of that’s the simplest option to begin coaching with weights.
- No matter your health degree, physique fats proportion, energy degree, or organic intercourse, you’ve each proper to be within the free weights part within the gymnasium, coaching with heavy weights, with all people else. The folks within the gymnasium who’re very robust with numerous muscle began someplace, too!
I was a CrossFit teacher, and my favourite factor about CrossFit was that it destigmatized barbell coaching and heavy lifting for a lot of ladies.
To ensure that us to energy prepare and construct muscle, we’re going to method this intelligently.
We’re not going to select up small dumbbells and do a number of reps.
We’re not going to sit down down at varied machines and scroll by way of our telephones whereas doing leg curls.
As a substitute, we’re going to:
- Get very robust with compound actions that recruit LOTS of muscle groups to work collectively.
- Do our exercises rapidly and get out of there. The exercise ought to take not than 45-60 minutes.
That is how we effectively construct muscle within the minimal period of time. What are the workout routines that we’re going to focus on?
1) The Push-Up: One of the best train you can ever do for your self with regards to utilizing your body weight for push muscle groups (your chest, shoulders, and triceps):
2) The Body weight Squat: This train serves a twin function: it’s the basis for constructing energy AND helps construct correct mobility. If you’ll ever do barbell squats, it is advisable work on hitting correct depth with a body weight squat first!
3) The Inverted Body weight Row: Till you may get your first pull-up or chin-up, these workout routines are GREAT to begin constructing your pull-muscle energy (your again, biceps, and forearms).
4) The Pull-Up and Chin-Up: As soon as you possibly can assist your physique’s weight above the bar, the world turns into your playground. No energy coaching routine must be with out pull-up or chin-up work! (Click on right here in case you can’t do a pull-up or chin-up but):
And now we’re into one of the best weight coaching workout routines:
5) The Barbell Squat: In all probability one of the best train with regards to constructing energy and muscle all through your entire physique. It additionally burns loopy energy and makes life higher. This can be a MUST:
This can be a very technical raise, so be sure you learn our article on deadlift with correct kind:
7) The Barbell Bench Press. Lie on a bench, squeeze your shoulder blades to maintain your again tight, after which decrease a barbell till it nearly touches your chest. Pause, after which press it again up in the direction of the sky. Repeat! And get robust.
8) Barbell Overhead Press: Stand along with your ft about shoulder-width aside and lean again by pushing your hips ahead. Whereas retaining your complete physique tight, press the bar overhead.
As soon as the bar passes your brow, transfer your physique again underneath the bar by driving your torso ahead and again right into a standing place. On the high of the raise shrug your shoulders barely and lock your elbows.
These are among the greatest compound workout routines you possibly can full with the intention to construct muscle. Need extra muscle? Nice! Get stronger at these actions!
One fast observe: after I first began lifting, it took some time to construct up the energy to have the ability to bench press or overhead press with the 45-lb bar. In case your gymnasium doesn’t have a lighter bar, dumbbells are an ideal possibility!
Your mission, do you have to select to simply accept it:
Decide to attempting ONE of those actions within the subsequent week. Use 20 seconds of braveness, recruit a pal who has lifted or educated earlier than, and take a look at your greatest.
I’ve three choices for you subsequent:
- Choose one of many muscle-building routines for ladies within the subsequent part.
- Construct your personal exercise routine utilizing these workout routines!
- Work with me and our teaching program to comply with a customized energy coaching routine to your targets.
5 Muscle Constructing Exercise Routines For Girls
I’m going to stroll you thru three totally different ranges of energy coaching, and by the tip of at present, you’re going to know precisely get began.
My recommendation: do 2-3 energy coaching routines per week, with 1-2 days off in between. Because the saying goes: “muscle isn’t constructed within the gymnasium, it’s constructed within the kitchen!”
So your purpose must be to do a energy coaching routine, after which be sure you eat a caloric surplus in order that your physique has sufficient energy to rebuild your muscle groups larger and stronger!
LEVEL 1: BODYWEIGHT TRAINING
Right here’s a newbie body weight coaching routine you are able to do within the consolation of your personal dwelling:
- 20 Body weight squats.
- 10 Push-ups.
- 10 Strolling lunges (every leg).
- 10 Dumbbell rows (use a milk jug or different weight).
- 15 Second Plank.
- 30 Leaping jacks.
We even have a downloadable worksheet of this newbie’s exercise you can print out and grasp in your fridge to trace your progress! Get it whenever you join beneath:
Seize Your Newbie Body weight Routine Worksheet. No Fitness center Required!
- Full this exercise at dwelling, no gear required
- Keep away from the widespread errors all people makes when doing body weight workout routines
- Learn to lastly get your first pull-up
LEVEL 2: DUMBBELL WORKOUT
When you’ve got dumbbells at dwelling or entry to a gymnasium, you possibly can choose our Degree 4 exercise from our 6-Degree Fitness center Exercise Routine.
So your Dumbbell Exercise is 3 circuits of the next:
- 10 goblet squats (holding the dumbbell like a goblet with 2 arms):
- 10 push-ups (or knee push-ups):
(By the best way, these are two GREAT workout routines in the direction of getting your first pull-up)
LEVEL 2: BEGINNER KETTLEBELL WORKOUT
When you’ve got a Kettlebell at dwelling, right here’s a 20-Minute Newbie Kettlebell Exercise you are able to do:
Do 3 circuits of this Kettlebell Exercise:
- 8 Halos (both sides)
- 10 Goblet Squats
- 8 Overhead Presses (both sides)
- 15 Kettlebell Swings
- 8 Bent Over Rows (both sides)
- 6 Entrance Rack Reverse Lunge (per facet)
In the event you like this Kettlebell exercise and wish to comply with alongside on a worksheet, merely print out our Kettlebell Exercise and produce it with you:
Seize Your Newbie Kettlebell Routine Worksheet!
- Full this exercise at dwelling or gymnasium with 1 kettlebell.
- Keep away from the widespread errors all people makes when doing kettlebell workout routines.
- Construct energy, burn fats, degree up your life!
LEVEL 3: BARBELL GYM WORKOUT
Right here’s a Barbell exercise you possibly can comply with from our Degree 5 Fitness center Exercise Routine.
BARBELL BATALLION WORKOUT A:
- 3 units of 10 barbell squats
- 3 units of 10 body weight rows:
BARBELL BATALLION WORKOUT B:
- 3 units of 5 barbell Romanian deadlifts (video pulled from our programs in Nerd Health Prime)
- 3 units of 10 bench presses:
- 3 units of 5 pull-ups, assisted pull-ups, or unfavorable pull-ups:
PICK A WORKOUT, GET STARTED!
The entire level is to do difficult actions that actually make your muscle groups work, after which attempt to do ONE extra rep, or raise a SLIGHTLY heavier weight subsequent time!
Don’t sweat the small particulars and as a substitute use 20 seconds of braveness to get began!
Monitor your exercises by writing down what you probably did, after which do what you possibly can subsequent time.
In the event you actually wish to degree up rapidly, LEARN HOW TO DO SQUATS AND HOW TO DO DEADLIFTS. These two workout routines modified my life!
“Staci, that’s nonetheless too many selections! Are you able to simply inform me what exercise routine to comply with?”
Okay effective! Right here’s what I might do if I used to be you.
Nonetheless overwhelmed? Take a look at our teaching program. We get to study your story, after which construct a program and technique round your targets that you just CAN do.
10 Ideas for Constructing Muscle as a Lady
I interviewed a number of different coaches on our group and requested for his or her greatest recommendation on construct muscle as a lady.
Right here’s what they stated:
Susy (Coach, BS in Psychology, Certificates III & IV in Health, 5+ years of expertise)
Tip #1: Meals is your pal whenever you need to construct muscle and get stronger – your physique will want gasoline, so chances are you’ll must eat extra on the times that you just work out!
Tip #2: Power and muscle constructing requires construction to your exercises – you progress by way of getting higher at particular actions, so just remember to benefit from the model and construction of your exercises with the intention to be as constant as doable.
Tip #3: Your progress will at all times be quickest in case you keep away from damage, so appropriate kind and listening to your physique is tremendous essential. Your muscle groups will fatigue and really feel sore, however joint ache and sharp, stabby ache means one thing isn’t transferring fairly proper.
Kerry (Coach, NASM-CPT, 6+ years of expertise)
Tip #4: Fall in love with the method. Getting stronger is a journey, one that’s each rewarding and difficult. So irrespective of the place you might be ranging from, take the time to rejoice every small step alongside the best way in the direction of a extra badass model of your self!
Christy (Coach, BS in Utilized Well being/Health, Nationwide Private Coaching Institute Graduate, Precision Diet Certification, 6+ years of expertise)
Tip #5: To get robust, you gotta raise weights. When lifting weights to get robust, you gotta be okay with testing your boundaries now and again.
After exercising along with your present weight, for the following coaching session…cease…and take a look at a couple of reps with the following weight UP to try it out! It would shock you the way a lot extra weight you possibly can raise!
Listed below are another suggestions that can assist you construct muscle.
Tip #6: Enhance your testosterone naturally: Eat sufficient saturated and monounsaturated fat, hold your sugar consumption low, and be sure you’re getting sufficient Vitamin D and Zinc.
These are objects linked with boosting your testosterone naturally.
Talking of testosterone – I do know chances are you’ll consider this as a “male” hormone, but it surely performs an enormous half in ladies muscle constructing, fats loss, enhance bone mass, and lots of different health-related points(keep in mind: estrogen is comprised of testosterone).
Males make about ten to fifteen occasions what we make naturally, but it surely doesn’t imply we don’t want it too.
One other approach we may also help our testosterone ranges is to look at our cortisol ranges.
Cortisol is a hormone that’s promoted by stress and reduces free testosterone ranges (along with signaling to your physique to retailer fats).
Need a option to naturally decrease your cortisol ranges? Strive meditation.
Tip #7: Not getting larger? Eat extra meals.
Deal with extra fat and carbs. They’re the simplest methods to extend your complete energy.
You’ll be able to take a look at our Information to Construct Muscle for extra particular recommendations on eat extra meals.
Tip #8: Ensure each meal has a stable protein supply.
Protein is required for constructing muscle, so prioritize this above all else whenever you sit right down to eat.
Having hassle getting all of it down? Purchase a blender!
Steve drinks two smoothies a day to succeed in his protein targets and you may take a look at our Information to Protein Shakes for his private recipe.
On the go along with no blender? I prefer to hold protein powder with me in a small Ziploc bag – that approach I can seize a bottle of water, rip off the nook of the Ziploc bag, and use that as a funnel to get the powder into the water bottle. Then, simply exchange the cap and shake and also you’ve acquired a protein-filled snack!
Tip #9: Get extra sleep! Once you construct muscle, your physique is working extra time, burning further energy. It’s going to wish a while to get well. Keep in mind, muscle is constructed whenever you relaxation, not whenever you really raise.
Go to mattress!
Tip #10: Begin at present!
Gaining muscle comes right down to consuming proper and energy coaching. Let’s get you lifting at present!
Strive some push-ups and squats as we mentioned in our energy coaching part. Tomorrow we will work on consuming proper and lifting extra.
A very powerful step you possibly can take at present is to start.
Let’s offer you some extra tricks to get you going.
Constructing Muscle: Subsequent Steps!
If I can slender down constructing muscle for ladies, it will be three details:
- Get stronger by choosing up heavy stuff or doing extra difficult body weight actions.
- Get larger by consuming a number of meals.
- Get well quicker by sleeping sufficient and giving your muscle groups days off to rebuild.
That’s it. You are able to do this.
In the event you made it this far, and also you need extra particular instruction and steering, we’ve got a couple of choices for you:
1) In case you are anyone that desires to comply with a tailored program designed round their life and targets, take a look at our common 1-on-1 On-line Teaching Program.
You’ll work with our licensed NF instructors who will get to know you higher than you already know your self, verify your kind, and program your exercises and diet for you.
2) If you need a precise blueprint for rising robust, take a look at NF Journey. Our enjoyable habit-building app helps you train extra incessantly, eat more healthy, and degree up your life (actually).
Strive your free trial proper right here:
3) Be a part of the Insurrection! We want good folks such as you in our group, the Nerd Health Insurrection.
Enroll within the field beneath to enlist and get our information, Power Coaching 101: Every part You Must Know. It’ll enable you to start your journey on constructing muscle.
Obtain our complete information
- Every part it is advisable learn about getting robust.
- Exercise routines for body weight AND weight coaching.
- How one can discover the fitting gymnasium and prepare correctly in a single.
Lastly, I’d love to listen to from you!
PLEASE go away your questions, consuming or energy or in any other case beneath so we will reply them and turn out to be greatest associates and observe karate kicks within the storage:
How can I enable you to get larger and stronger?
What a part of this journey are you continue to struggling essentially the most with?
What are your favourite bulking up meals!?
Share with your mates within the feedback so we will all go purchase it in bulk at Costco.
PS: Be sure to take a look at the remainder of our Power Constructing Articles!
Picture sources: Girls’s Day 2015, Sea spray, The Viking, The Evolution of LEGO Marvel Lady, Apocalyptic Motorbike, Particular person Mountain,